CoNLL-U format

The most common way to store dependency structures is the CoNLL format. Several extensions were proposed and we describe here the one which is used by Grew, known as CoNLL-U format defined in the Universal Dependency project.

For a sentence, some metadata are given in lines beginning by #. The rest of the lines described the tokens of the structure. Tokens lines contain 10 fields, separated by tabulations.

The file n01118003.conllu is an example of CoNLL-U data taken form the corpus UD_English-PUD (version 2.6).

# newdoc id = n01118
# sent_id = n01118003
# text = Drop the mic.
1	Drop	drop	VERB	VB	VerbForm=Inf	0	root	0:root	_
2	the	the	DET	DT	Definite=Def|PronType=Art	3	det	3:det	_
3	mic	mic	NOUN	NN	Number=Sing	1	obj	1:obj	SpaceAfter=No
4	.	.	PUNCT	.	_	1	punct	1:punct	_



We explain here how Grew deals with the 10 fields if CoNLL-U files:

1. ID. This field is a number used as an identifier for the corresponding lexical unit (LU).
2. FORM. The phonological form of the LU. In Grew, the value of this field is available through a feature named form (for backward compatibility, the keyword phon can also be used instead of form).
3. LEMMA. The lemma of the LU. In Grew, this corresponds to the feature lemma.
4. UPOS. The field upos (for backward compatibility, cat can also be used to refer to this field).
5. XPOS. The field xpos (for backward compatibility, pos can also be used to refer to this field).
6. FEATS. List of morphological features.
7. HEAD. Head of the current word, which is either a value of ID or 0 for the root node.
8. DEPREL. Dependency relation to the HEAD (root iff HEAD = 0).
9. DEPS. (UD only) Enhanced dependency graph in the form of a list of head-deprel pairs. In Grew, these relations are encoded with the features enhanced=yes
10. MISC. Any other annotation. In Grew, annotation of the field are accessible like morphological features if the FEATS column.

Note that the same format is very often use to describes dependency syntax corpora. In these cases, a set of sentences is described in the same file using the same convention as above and a blank line as separator between sentences. It is also requires that the sent_id metadata is unique for each sentence in the file.

In practice, it may be useful to deal explicitly with the root relation (for instance, if some rewriting rule is designed to change the root of the structure). To allow this, when reading CoNLL-U format Grew also creates a node at position 0 and link it with the root relation to the linguistic root node of the sentence. The example above then produce the 5 nodes graphs below:

In Grew nodes, the fields 2, 3, 4 and 5 of CoNLL-U structure are considered as features with the following feature names.

CoNLL-U field 2 3 4 5
Name form lemma upos xpos

For instance

• matching the word ispattern { N [form="is"] }
• matching the lemma bepattern { N [lemma="be"] }

In older versions of Grew (before the definition of the CoNLL-U format), the fields 2, 4 and 5 where accessible with the names phon, cat and pos respectively. To have a backward compatibility and uniform handling of these fields, the names phon, cat and pos are replaced at parsing time by form, upos and xpos. As a consequence, it is impossible to use both phon and form in the same system. We highly recommend to use only the form feature in this setting. Of course, the same observation applies to cat and upos (upos should be prefered) and to pos and xpos (xpos should be chosen).

Additional features textform and wordform

In order to deal with several places where text data present in the original sentence and the corresponding linguistic unit are different, a systematic use of the two features textform and wordform was proposed in #683.

The two fields are built from CoNLL-U data in the following way:

1. If a multiword token i-j is declared:
• the textform of the first token is the FORM field of the multiword token
• the textform of each other token is _
1. If the token is an empty node (exists only in EUD):
• textform=_ and wordform=__EMPTY__
1. For each token without textform feature, the textform is set to the FORM field value
2. For each token without wordform feature, the wordform is set to the FORM field value

⚠️ In places where wordform should be different from FORM field, this should be expressed in the data with an explicit wordform feature. This includes:

• lowercased form of initial word or potentially other words in the sentence
• typographical or orthographical errors
• token linked by a goeswith relation

See few examples in SUD_French-GSD .