Graphs definition

The graphs we consider in Grew are defined as usually in mathematics by two sets:

A node is described by a an identifier (needed to refer to nodes on edges definitions) and a feature structure (basically a finite list of pairs (feature_name, feature_value)).

An edge is described by two nodes (called the source and the target of the edge) and by an edge label. Until version 1.1, edge labels were atomic strings. Since version 1.2 labels are encoded as feature structures (mainly to ease the writing of rules with complex label like nsubj:pass where we would like to be able to access to subparts nsubj and pass independently).

See here for more detail on complex edge labels.

Graph input formats

To describe a graph in practice, Grew offers several input formats: a native gr format, the conll format (and a few derived formats), the amr format.

CoNLL format

The most common way to store dependency structures is the CoNLL format. Several extensions were proposed and we describe here the one which is used by Grew, known as CoNLL-U format defined in the Universal Dependency project.

For a sentence, some metadata are given in lines beginning by #. The rest of the lines described the tokens of the structure. Tokens lines contain 10 fields, separated by tabulations.

The file n01118003.conllu is an example of CoNLL-U data taken form the corpus UD_English-PUD (version 2.4).

# newdoc id = n01118
# sent_id = n01118003
# text = Drop the mic.
1	Drop	drop	VERB	VB	VerbForm=Inf	0	root	0:root	_
2	the	the	DET	DT	Definite=Def|PronType=Art	3	det	3:det	_
3	mic	mic	NOUN	NN	Number=Sing	1	obj	1:obj	SpaceAfter=No
4	.	.	PUNCT	.	_	1	punct	1:punct	_

We explain here how Grew deals with the 10 fields if CoNLL files:

  1. ID. This field is a number used as an identifier for the corresponding lexical unit (LU). In Grew, it is available as the feature position (most of the times it not useful to use this field, constraints on relative positions can be expressed with the < or << syntax).
  2. FORM. The phonological form of the LU. In Grew, the value of this field is available through a feature named form (for backward compatibility, the keyword phon can also be used instead of form).
  3. LEMMA. The lemma of the LU. In Grew, this corresponds to the feature lemma.
  4. UPOS. The field upos (for backward compatibility, cat can also be used to refer to this field).
  5. XPOS. The field xpos (for backward compatibility, pos can also be used to refer to this field).
  6. FEATS. List of morphological features.
  7. HEAD. Head of the current word, which is either a value of ID or 0 for the root node.
  8. DEPREL. Dependency relation to the HEAD (root iff HEAD = 0).
  9. DEPS. Enhanced dependency graph in the form of a list of head-deprel pairs. In Grew, the relation are available with the prefix E:
  10. MISC. Any other annotation. In Grew, annotation of the field are accessible with the prefix _MISC_.

Note that the same format is very often use to describes dependency syntax corpora. In these cases, a set of sentences is described in the same file using the same convention as above and a blank line as separator between sentences. It is also requires that the sent_id metadata is unique for each sentence in the file.

In practice, it may be useful to deal explicitly with the root relation (for instance, if some rewriting rule is designed to change the root of the structure). To allow this, when reading CoNLL-U format Grew also creates a node at position 0 and link it with the root relation to the linguistic root node of the sentence. The example above then produce the 5 nodes graphs below:

Dependency structure

Note about backward compatibility

In older versions of Grew (before the definition of the CoNLL-U format), the fields 2, 4 and 5 where accessible with the names phon, cat and pos respectively. To have a backward compatibility and uniform handling of these fields, the 3 names phon, cat and pos are replaced at parsing time by form, upos and xpos. As a consequence, it is impossible to use both phon and form in the same system. We highly recommend to use only the form feature in this setting. Of course, the same observation applies to cat and upos (upos should be prefered) and to pos and xpos (xpos should be chosen).

The native format


The AMR format